Demystifying Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Insights into Symptoms and Therapeutic Approaches

Benjamin Bonetti Therapy Online Coaching

Feelings of anxiety are a common part of the human experience, acting as a biological alarm system to alert us to potential threats.

However, when anxiety becomes persistent, uncontrollable, and begins to interfere with daily life, it may be a sign of Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD). As a counsellor, I feel it's important to delve into the complexities of GAD, empowering readers to understand its symptoms and familiarise themselves with the effective treatment options available. 

GAD: A Closer Look

GAD is a long-term condition characterised by feelings of constant worry and anxiety over many different activities and events. It's one of the most common mental health disorders, with the NHS estimating that it affects about 5% of the UK population

Though the exact causes of GAD are not fully understood, research suggests that a combination of genetic factors, differences in brain chemistry and function, and environmental stressors can contribute to its development. Importantly, GAD is a genuine health condition, not a sign of personal weakness or a character flaw. 

Symptoms of GAD

Symptoms of GAD can be diverse and impact various aspects of an individual's life. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the principal symptom of GAD is excessive worry about several different areas of life—like work, health, family, or finances—for at least six months. This worry is difficult to control and often feels disproportionate to the situation. 

Physical symptoms may also accompany this worry, including: 

  • Restlessness or a feeling of being "on edge"
  • Becoming tired easily
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Irritability
  • Muscle tension
  • Sleep disturbances (trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or restless and unsatisfying sleep)

It's essential to note that GAD presents differently in different individuals; not everyone with GAD will experience all these symptoms. If you recognise these symptoms in yourself and they're causing significant distress or hindering your daily life, consult with a mental health professional. 

Treatment Approaches for GAD

The good news is that GAD is treatable, and the majority of people with GAD can significantly reduce or even eliminate their symptoms with the right treatment. Here, we'll explore some common therapeutic approaches to managing GAD.

Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

CBT is a form of psychological treatment that has been proven to be highly effective for anxiety disorders, including GAD. In CBT, individuals learn to identify and understand their thought patterns and beliefs, explore how these cognitions contribute to anxiety, and learn to change these patterns to manage anxiety better.

Mindfulness-Based Therapies 

Mindfulness-based therapies, such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), can be beneficial for individuals with GAD. These approaches teach individuals to focus their attention on the present moment, fostering a non-judgmental acceptance of their experiences.


Medications are sometimes used as part of the treatment for GAD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are classes of medicines commonly used to treat GAD. Benzodiazepines may also be used, but they are generally prescribed for short-term relief of acute symptoms.

Lifestyle Modifications 

Certain lifestyle modifications can also support the management of GAD symptoms. These can include maintaining a balanced diet, ensuring regular physical activity, establishing a healthy sleep routine, reducing caffeine and alcohol consumption, and practicing stress management techniques such as yoga or meditation. 

GAD, while a challenging disorder, is not insurmountable. With a deeper understanding of the disorder and the right treatment, individuals with GAD can lead fulfilling, productive lives. If you think you may have GAD, reach out to a mental health professional. There is help available, and you are not alone.

Remember that everyone's journey with GAD is different, requiring personalised treatment plans and coping strategies. As a counsellor, my goal is to foster understanding and empathy towards mental health disorders like GAD, fostering an environment where stigma is replaced with supportive conversations and effective strategies for better mental health.

Discover a Path Towards Better Mental Health

Navigating life's ups and downs can often feel overwhelming, leading to stress, anxiety, or even feelings of despair. If you're feeling weighed down by emotional turmoil or struggling to find a sense of balance, we're here to help. Our counselling services offer a safe, compassionate, and confidential environment where you can express your feelings freely, explore your concerns, and begin the journey towards healing and personal growth. We believe that everyone has the capacity for change and that therapy can unlock the door to a more fulfilling, happier life.

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Our professional counselling services are designed to equip you with the tools and strategies necessary to effectively handle life's challenges. Whether you're grappling with stress, anxiety, depression, or simply seeking a better understanding of yourself and your relationships, we can provide tailored support to meet your unique needs. Using evidence-based approaches such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, we can help you challenge unhelpful cognitive biases and develop healthier ways of thinking.

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